【Codeforces 1462 E1】Close Tuples (easy version),排序,二分,贪心,组合数

problem

E1. Close Tuples (easy version)
time limit per test2 seconds
memory limit per test256 megabytes
inputstandard input
outputstandard output
This is the easy version of this problem. The only difference between easy and hard versions is the constraints on k and m (in this version k=2 and m=3). Also, in this version of the problem, you DON’T NEED to output the answer by modulo.

You are given a sequence a of length n consisting of integers from 1 to n. The sequence may contain duplicates (i.e. some elements can be equal).

Find the number of tuples of m=3 elements such that the maximum number in the tuple differs from the minimum by no more than k=2. Formally, you need to find the number of triples of indices i<j<z such that

max(ai,aj,az)−min(ai,aj,az)≤2.
For example, if n=4 and a=[1,2,4,3], then there are two such triples (i=1,j=2,z=4 and i=2,j=3,z=4). If n=4 and a=[1,1,1,1], then all four possible triples are suitable.

Input
The first line contains a single integer t (1≤t≤2⋅105) — the number of test cases. Then t test cases follow.

The first line of each test case contains an integer n (1≤n≤2⋅105) — the length of the sequence a.

The next line contains n integers a1,a2,…,an (1≤ai≤n) — the sequence a.

It is guaranteed that the sum of n for all test cases does not exceed 2⋅105.

Output
Output t answers to the given test cases. Each answer is the required number of triples of elements, such that the maximum value in the triple differs from the minimum by no more than 2. Note that in difference to the hard version of the problem, you don’t need to output the answer by modulo. You must output the exact value of the answer.

Example
inputCopy
4
4
1 2 4 3
4
1 1 1 1
1
1
10
5 6 1 3 2 9 8 1 2 4
outputCopy
2
4
0
15

solution

/*
题意:
+ 给出一个长为n的序列,求有多少个m=3元组(任选m个元素组成的集合)满足其中最大数-最小数小于等于k=2。
思路:
+ 先对数组排序,然后算出每个数的贡献,先从第一个数开始找到第一个大于它的值+k的数(二分),下标差即为可选的构成m个数元组的可选数的个数s。
+ 如果s<m贡献0,如果s>=m,贡献为从s-1个数中选出m-1个数的方法数(已经选了一个数),转换为求组合数的模问题。
*/
#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
typedef long long LL;
const int maxn = 2e5 + 5;
const int mod = 1e9+7;
LL a[maxn];
int main(){
	int T;  cin>>T;
	while(T--){
		//int n, m, k;  cin>>n>>m>>k;
		LL n, m=3, k=2;  cin>>n;
		for(int i = 1; i <= n; i++)cin>>a[i];
		sort(a+1,a+n+1);
		LL ans = 0;
		for(int i = 1; i <= n; i++){
			//LL r = i;  while(a[r+1]-a[i]<=k && r+1<=n)r++;
			LL r = upper_bound(a+1,a+n+1,a[i]+k)-a;
			LL cnt = r-i;
			if(cnt<m)continue;
			ans += (cnt-1)*(cnt-2)/2;
		}
		cout<<ans<<"\n";
	}
	return 0;
}


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